"Cognition" is a term for a wide swath of mental functions that relate to knowledge and information processing.
Attention is a limited resource used to selectively concentrate on some information while ignoring other perceivable information.
Categorization is the process through which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, classified, and understood.
Executive functions are involved in handling novel situations and regulating behavior; they mature and develop over time.
Reason is how we form inferences about the world; there are different types of reasoning, which have different advantages.
Solving a problem is reaching a goal state; there are many things that can stand in the way of solving a problem, but many strategies that can help.
Decision making is the cognitive process that results in the selection of a course of action or belief from several possibilities.
Social cognition, like general cognition, uses schemas to help people form judgments and conclusions about the world.