Anti-Federalist debates, it featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Democratic-Republican Party formed by ThomasJefferson and James Madison.
In an analysis of the contemporary party system, Jefferson wrote on Feb. 12, 1798: "Two political Sects have arisen within the US, the one believing that the executive is the branch of our government which the most needs support; the other, that like the analogous branch in the English Government, it is already too strong for the republican parts of the Constitution; and therefore in equivocal cases they incline to the legislative powers: the former of these are called federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats, and sometimes tories, after the corresponding sect in the English Government of exactly the same definition: the latter are stiled republicans, whigs, jacobins, anarchists, disorganizers, etc. these terms are in familiar use with most persons. "
Jefferson was especially fearful that British aristocratic influences would undermine Republicanism.
Congress approved Hamilton's programs, which would later be labeled Federalist, over the opposition of the old Anti-Federalists element, which increasingly coalesced under the leadership of ThomasJefferson and James Madison.
Republicans, or the Democratic-Republican Party, was founded in 1792 by Jefferson and James Madison.
It would be Jefferson and the Republican Party that would replace the Federalist Party domination of politics following the election of 1800.
Gutzman argues that the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798 by Jefferson and Madison were not only responses to immediate threats but were legitimate responses based on the long-standing principles of states' rights and strict adherence to the Constitution.