Examples of brain drain in the following topics:
- Human capital flight, more commonly referred to as the "brain drain," is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge.
- The brain drain is often associated with de-skilling of emigrants in their country of destination, while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled individuals.
- Two main jugular veins are responsible for the venous draining of the head and neck.
- The external jugular vein passes down the neck and underneath the clavicle before draining into the subclavian vein.
- The deep-lying internal jugular vein receives blood from the dural venous sinuses in the brain as well as the cerebral and cerebellar veins.
- The dural sinuses receive blood from the veins that drain the brain and skull.
- As well as removing blood from the brain, the anterior retromandibular, facial, and lingual veins also drain into the internal jugular.
- However, migration can also hurt the economy through "brain drain", the loss of skilled workers who are essential for economic growth (Stiglitz, 2003).
- The CSF occupies the space between the arachnoid mater (the middle layer of the brain cover, the meninges) and the pia mater (the layer of the meninges closest to the brain).
- Since the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord can contain only 135 to 150 ml, large amounts are drained into the blood through arachnoid granulations in the superior sagittal sinus.
- Buoyancy: The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400 grams; however, the net weight of the brain suspended in the CSF is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams.
- The brain therefore exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight.
- Protection: CSF protects the brain tissue from injury when jolted or hit.
- The ureters are two tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
- Each ureter is a muscular tube that drains into the bladder.
- When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder.
- At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax.
- The veins of the thorax drain deoxygenated blood from the thorax region for return to the heart.
- The internal thoracic vein is a vessel that drains the chest wall and breasts.
- The supreme intercostal vein is a paired vein that drains the first intercostal space on its corresponding side.
- It usually drains into the brachiocephalic vein.
- The renal veins from the kidney and hepatic veins of the liver drain directly into the inferior vena cava.
- The subclavian veins are significant because the thoracic lymphatic duct drains lymph fluid into the subclavian veins, making the superior vena cava a site of lymph fluid recirculation into the plasma.
- Along the way up the body from the iliac veins, the renal and suprarenal veins (kidney and adrenal glands), lumbar veins (from the back), and hepatic veins (from the liver) all drain into the inferior vena cava.
- The aortic arch contains peripheral baroreceptors
(pressure sensors) and chemoreceptors (chemical sensors) that relay
information concerning blood pressure, blood pH, and carbon dioxide
levels to the medulla oblongata of the brain.
- This information is
processed by the brain and the autonomic nervous system mediates the
homeostatic responses that involve feedback in the lungs and kidneys.
- The lymph trunks drain into the lymph ducts, which in turn return lymph to the blood by emptying into the respective subclavian veins.
- Jugular lymph trunks, located in the neck, drain lymph fluid from the cervical lymph nodes of the neck.
- Lumbar lymph trunks are the lower pair of lymph trunks that drain lymph fluid from the legs, pelvic region, and kidneys.
- Lymphatic trunks then drain lymph fluid into the lymph ducts, the final part of the lymphatic system.
- The thoracic duct drains into to the left subclavian vein while the right duct drains into the right subclavian vein, both at the junction between the respective vein and the jugular vein.
- In venous pooling, the smooth muscles surrounding the veins become slack and the veins fill with the majority of the blood in the body, keeping blood away from the brain, which can cause unconsciousness.
- The blood is then drained in the gastrointestinal tract and spleen, where it is taken up by the hepatic veins and blood is taken back into the heart.
- Systemic veins - Systemic veins drain the tissues of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart.
- The ethmoid bone is the bone that separates the nose from the brain, and supports the shape and structure of the nasal and orbital cavities.
- The most important function is the sinuses' role in draining mucus from the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx, which helps regulate pressure inside the nasal cavity.