Perceptual distortions, such as cognitive bias, can result in poor judgement and irrational courses of action.
A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations and can lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
A few useful perceptual distortions managers should be aware of include:
This law posits that when we perceive a collection of objects we will perceptually group together objects that are physically close to each other.
This law states that people will perceive similar elements will be perceptually grouped together.
Many optical illusions play on this perceptual tendency.
We develop perceptual schemas in order to organize impressions of people based on their appearance, social roles, interaction, or other traits; these schemas then influence how we perceive other things in the world.
For example, you might have a perceptual schema that the building where you go to class is symmetrical on the outside (sometimes called the "symmetry heuristic," or the tendency to remember things as being more symmetrical than they are).
Depth perception relies on the convergence of both eyes upon a single object, the relative differences between the shape and size of the images on each retina, the relative size of objects in relation to each other, and other cues such as texture and constancy.
For example, shape constancy allows the individual to see an object as a constant shape from different angles, so that each eye is recognizing a single shape and not two distinct images.